Improvement in the Living Conditions of Scheduled Tribes in India

As per National Family Health Surveys (NFHS) conducted by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, in respect of Scheduled Tribes –

  • Infant Mortality Rate has declined from 62.1 (2005-06) to 41.6 (2019-21);

Data pertaining to decennial Census, management information system, sample surveys conducted by different Ministries / Departments of Government of India, reveal that over the years there have been considerable improvements in living conditions of the Scheduled Tribes (STs) –

  • Literacy rate for STs has improved from 47.1% in 2001 to 59% in 2011.

Erstwhile Planning Commission estimated that percentage of ST people living below the poverty line in rural areas has declined from 62.3% in 2004-05 to 45.3% in 2011-12. Also, percentage of ST people living below the poverty line in urban areas has declined from 35.5% in 2004-05 to 24.1% in 2011-12.


  • Government is implementing Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP)/Schedule Tribe Component (STC)/Development Action Plan for STs (DAPST) for overall development of tribal people across the country.
  • Ministry of Tribal Affairs, 41 Central Ministries / Departments have been obligated for earmarking in the range of 4.3 to 17.5 percent of their total Scheme allocation every year as TSP/STC/DAPST funds for tribal development. TSP/STC/DAPST funds are spent by different Central Ministries / Departments under their schemes for various development projects relating to education, health, agriculture, irrigation, roads, housing, drinking water, electrification, employment generation, skill development, etc. for accelerated socio-economic development of STs. NITI Aayog has issued guidelines for earmarking, effective utilization of TSP)/ STC/DAPST funds by the obligated Ministries/Departments for the welfare and development of STs.

Source: PIB

Categories: POINT IAS

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