Prelims Revision-35

    1. Indias nuclear triad, stated in its nuclear doctrine, is operational after indigenous ballistic missile nuclear submarine INS Arihant achieved a milestone by conducting its first deterrence patrol. Arihant is now prowling the deep seas carrying ballistic missiles equipped with nuclear warheads. Given India’s stated position of ‘No-First-Use’ (NFU) in launching nuclear weapons, the SSBN is the most dependable platform for a second-strike. Because they are powered by nuclear reactors, these submarines can stay underwater indefinitely without the adversary detecting it. The other two platforms — land-based and air-launched are far easier to detect. Arihant is presently armed with K-15 Sagarika missiles with a range of 750 km and will eventually carry the longer 3,500 km range K-4 missiles being developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
    2. United Nation Food and Agricultural Organisation’s Future Policy Award, 2018 has been conferred on Sikkim for its achievements in the field of agro-ecology and sustainable development.
    1. Hope Island is a part of the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary in Andhra Pradesh.
    2. Dhokra (also spelt Dokra) is non–ferrous metal casting using the lost-wax casting technique. This sort of metal casting has been used inIndiafor over 4,000 years and is still used. One of the earliest known lost wax artefacts is the dancing girl of Mohenjo-daro.Adilabad Dokra of Telangana, an ancient metal craft that is popular in the state’s tribal regions, has a Geographical Indication tag. Dokra artists are also found in West Bengal, Odisha and Chattisgarh.
    3. In Telengana, Adilabad Dokra, Warangal durries, the Silver Filigree of Karimnagar, Hyderabadi Haleem and Narayanpet Handloom Sarees enjoy the GI tag.The famous ‘Hyderabadi biriyani’ failed to get a GI tag, as it could not prove its historical origin.
    4. In Andhra Pradesh, the famous ‘Tirupati laddu’ offered as prasadam at the Sri Venkateshwara temple atop Tirumala already enjoys the GI tag, along with the Banganapalle mango and the Durgi stone carvings, among others.
    5. GSAT-11 is the heaviest Indian communication satellite built to date. The satellite will be useful for faster Internet connectivity. GSAT-11 is built to provide the Indian region superior communication and 12 GBPS connectivity with its multiple spot beams in Ka and Ku bands.
    6. NASA’s pioneering Dawn spacecraft — which orbited the two largest objects in the asteroid belt — has recently run out of fuel.  It was launched in 2007 to study the protoplanet Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. The spacecraft finally ran out of hydrazine, the fuel that enables the spacecraft to control its pointing. NASA’s  exoplanet-hunting Kepler Space Telescope has also run out of hydrazine fuel. The spacecraft was propelled by ion engines. Dawn also reinforced the idea that dwarf planets could have hosted oceans over a significant part of their history — and potentially still do.
    7. “Green crackers” are so named because they “do not contain harmful chemicals” that would cause air pollution. Components in firecrackers are replaced with others that are “less dangerous” and “less harmful” to the atmosphere. Scientists have developed flower pots by using “eco-friendly materials” that can potentially reduce particulate matter by 40%. They are also testing the efficacy of bijli crackers by “eliminating the use of ash as desiccants”. Scientists have also developed potential sound-emitting functional prototypes that do not emit sulphur dioxide, and are testing a prototype of flower pots substituting barium nitrate with an eco-friendly version.Scientists have given these crackers names: Safe Water Releaser (SWAS), Safe Thermite Cracker (STAR) and Safe Minimal Aluminium (SAFAL). “It has the unique property of releasing water vapour and/or air as dust suppressant and diluent for gaseous emissions and matching performance in sound with conventional crackers. The Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organisation is testing and analysing these crackers for safety and stability.
    8. The Odisha government recently launched the Early Warning Dissemination System (EWDS), the first-of-its-kind technology in India, to simultaneously warn coastal communities and fisherfolk about impending cyclone and tsunami through siren towers. The innovative warning system would alert people about disasters such as floods and cyclone. Fishermen fishing in deep sea can also be reached via mass SMS on their mobile phones through EWDS. The EWDS, a collaborative effort of the Central and State governments, has been implemented under the assistance of World Bank. It comprises technologies such as satellite-based mobile data voice terminals, digital mobile radio, mass messaging system and universal communication interface for interoperability.It’s a part of the last-mile connectivity programme under National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project.

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