Prelims Revision-31

    1. The Bonda are a Munda ethnic group approximately 12,000 who live in the isolated hill regions of the Malkangiri district of southwestern Odisha, India, near the junction of the three states of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, and Andhra Pradesh.
    2. Stars die because they exhaust their nuclear fuel. The events at the end of a star’s life depend on its mass. Really massive stars use up their hydrogen fuel quickly, but are hot enough to fuse heavier elements such as helium and carbon. Once there is no fuel left, the star collapses and the outer layers explode as a ‘supernova’. What’s left over after a supernova explosion is a ‘neutron star’ – the collapsed core of the star – or, if there’s sufficient mass, a black hole.
    3. Construction of visa-free corridor from the Indian side to Gurdwara Darbar Sahib at Kartarpur in Pakistan. Pakistan accepted New Delhi’s request to open the corridor ahead of Guru Nanak’s 550th birth anniversary in November 2019. The corridor will extend from Dera Baba Nanak in Gurdaspur district in Punjab to the International Border with Pakistan. The shrine is located on the banks of the Ravi at Kartarpur in Narowal district of Pakistan Punjab, 3 km from the border.
    4. A kambala is an annual buffalo race held in the southwestern Indian state of Karnataka.
    5. In what is seen as a significant step to keep vanishing tribal languages in circulation, the Odisha government has come out with lexicons of 21 such languages. Odisha has a unique place on the tribal map of India for having the maximum number of Scheduled Tribe communities. The State is home to 62 different tribal communities, including 13 particularly vulnerable tribal groups. These tribes speak 21 languages and 74 dialects. Of the 21 tribal languages, seven have their own scripts.
    6. Nankana Sahib is a city and capital of Nankana Sahib District in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is named after the first Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Nanak, who was born in the city and first began preaching here; urdwaraSachcha Saudais situated at a distance of 37 miles from Lahore in Pakistan; PiranKaliyar is the dargah of 13th-century Sufi saint of Chishti Order, Alauddin Ali Ahmed Sabir Kalyari also known as Sarkar Sabir Pak and Sabir Kaliyari, situated at Kaliyar village, near Haridwar.
    7. MH-60R Multi-Role Helicopters (MRH) is from the US.
    8. Polavaram Project, is an underconstruction multi-purpose Irrigation project on the Godavari River in the West Godavari District and East Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh. The project has been accorded national project status by the Union Government of Indiaand will be the last to be accorded the status. Its reservoir spreads into parts of Chattisgarh and Odisha States also. It gives major boost to tourism sector for the state of andhrapradesh as the reservoir covers the famous Papikonda National Park.
    9. Point Calimere is the renowned wildlife and bird sanctuary on the seashore in Nagapattinam district in Tamil Nadu. In the devastation caused by Cyclone Gaja, thousands of birds that once made the sanctuary their home have died. Great flamingo, Painted Stork, Little Stint, Seagull and Brown-headed gull are normally found in the sanctuary.
    10. Russia was declared the lowest bidder in the Army’s Very Short Range Air Defence (VSHORAD) deal; recently India signed a $5.43 bn deal for five S-400 long range air defence regiments with Russia. The S-400Triumf (Russian: C-400 Triumph; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as the S-300 PMU-3, is an anti-aircraft weapon system developed in the 1990s by Russia.