Prelims Revision – 2 (From July, 2018)

  1. Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an acid-fast, rod-shaped bacillus. The disease mainly affects the skin, the peripheral nerves, mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, and the eyes. Leprosy is curable and treatment in the early stages can prevent disability. Read more at World Health Organisation. Leprosy continues to be a ground for divorce under various personal laws. Leprosy patients face discrimination even in some civil laws relating to elections and appointments. Read more at The Hindu
  2. Pulikkali (“Puli” = Leopard/Tiger & “Kali” = Play in Malayalam language) is a recreational folk art from the state of Kerala. It is performed by trained artists to entertain people on the occasion of Onam, an annual harvest festival, celebrated mainly in the Indian state of Kerala. On the fourth day of Onam celebrations (Nalaam Onam), performers painted like tigers and hunters in bright yellow, red, and black dance to the beats of instruments like Udukku and Thakil. Literal meaning of Pulikkali is the ‘play of the tigers’ hence the performance revolve around the theme of tiger hunting. The folk art is mainly practiced in Thrissur district of Kerala. Read more at Wikipedia. Also read The Hindu.
  3. Atrial septal defect is a “hole” in the wall that separates the top two chambers of the heart. This defect allows oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart. ASD is a defect in the septum between the heart’s two upper chambers (atria). The septum is a wall that separates the heart’s left and right sides. ‘Atrial septal defect’ has been in news as doctors have protested against the reimbursement amounts fixed under the Ayushmaan Bharat Scheme.
  4. Io, Jupiter’s fifth moon is the most volcanically active body in the solar system. Plumes of sulfur spew upward as high as 190 miles (300 kilometers). The surface of Io is splotched with lava lakes and floodplains of liquid rock. Read more at https://www.space.com/16419-io-facts-about-jupiters-volcanic-moon.html. Recently, with its Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) instrument, NASA’s Juno spacecraft found a new heat source close to the south pole of Io. The Hindu
  5. Thousands of ducks, godwits, and other waders from the Caspian Sea in the west to Lake Baikal in the east take wing every autumn. They head south for about 4,000 km until they reach Asia’s second largest coastal lagoon, the 1,100-sq km Chilika lake in Odisha. Read more at The Hindu.
  6. Presently, foreign flag vessels are permitted to carry Indian cargo after obtaining licence from the Directorate General, Shipping. Under the ROFR clause, an Indian vessel has the right to carry this cargo at the same tariff as offered by the foreign vessel. Thus, cargo would be carried by an Indian ship without any additional cost to consumers. A proposed move by the Centre to abolish the Right of First Refusal (ROFR) clause for transportation of Indian cargo by Indian-flagged vessels — the only benefit available to Indian shipping companies — is threatening the existence of the domestic shipping industry. Read more at The Hindu.
  7. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was, thus, established with effect from 20th February 1997 by an Act of Parliament, called the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997, to regulate telecom services, including fixation/revision of tariffs for telecom services which were earlier vested in the Central Government.TRAI has recently been in news for upholding net neutrality principles. The TRAI Act was amended by an ordinance, effective from 24 January 2000, establishing a Telecommunications Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) to take over the adjudicatory and disputes functions from TRAI. The TDSAT consists of a Chairperson and two Members appointed by the Central Government. The Chairperson should be or should have been a Judge of the Supreme Court or the Chief Justice of a High Court. A Member should have held the post of Secretary to the Government of India or any equivalent post in the Central Government or the State Government for a period of not less than two years or a person who is well versed in the field of technology, telecommunication, industry, commerce or administration.TDSAT was set up to adjudicate any dispute between a licensor and a licensee, between two or more service providers, between a service provider and a group of consumers, and to hear and dispose of appeals against any direction, decision or order of TRAI. The TRAI act specifically.
  8. Srirangapattana, a historic place has been named after the presiding deity in the Sri Ranganatha Temple, built in the 15th century by Tirumala, a Ganga King. The entire town is enclosed by the river Kaveri to form an island. Srirangappattana was once the capital of the mysore rulers. Srirangapattana was also the seat of government for Hyder and Tipu. The fort here was built in 1454.
  9. Bhendi Bazaar gharana is named after the famous Bhendi Bazaar in Bombay which is next to Nall Bazaar and Imam Bada. It houses Wazeeria Hotel, once the hub of Qawwals, including the famous Aziz Nazan, who is remembered for his unforgettable ‘Chadta Suraj dheere-e dheere, dhalta hai dhal jayega’ and ‘Jhoom barabar jhoom sharabi.’ Read more at The Hindu. Also read The Hindu.
  10. Rajasthan is the first State in the country to establish a government-run community milk banking system. Aanchal, the mother’s milk bank established in 18 district government hospitals of Rajasthan, has benefited about 20,000 infants and helped improve their nutrition levels. The bank collects excess breast milk from lactating mothers and provides it to infants deprived of it.